Category Archives: Good Airmanship Practices

Some general info on good airmanship practices

Pilot Interview Questions, how to prepare? Part I

Preparing for the airline interview.

Airline Pilot QuestionsAn airline interview is one of the most important things an pilot must prepare for. The quality airlines have very high standards when hiring new pilots. There are pilot interviews with questions, flight assessment, role-play games and many more. In order to prepare for the pilot interview questions I have gathered some questions form and actual airline based in the far east. Hope this post helps to sync your clock with the requirements and to prepare for the interview. Also it helps you to increase your aviation knowledge base. Have fun, some of the questions require a lot of thinking and knowledge. This part I of the questions I’ve gathered (almost 200), soon I will post the other because I didn’t have enough space in one post 🙂

 

1. Background, professional career. You will likely be asked to talk about your career in brief (focus on airline career not full aviation career).
2. Do you have any Far East Experience?
3. What are your weak/strong points?
4. What are your hobbies?
5. What is your marital status?
6. Are you looking at other job opportunities?
7. Why do you want to join Korean Air?
8. When can you start?
9. How many routes does our airline operate on [the aircraft you are flying on]?
10. What color are taxi way markings?
11. Describe the go around procedure.
12. Describe the rejected takeoff procedure.
13. Have you ever met any communication problems flying with an Asian Captain (from a pilot who was flying in Asia already).? If yes, what was your reaction? How did you manage?
14. Cold weather operations.
15. What does RVSM mean and why do we have it?

16. You‘re flying into an RVSM area following preceding traffic that is flying 1000 feet above your present level a couple of miles ahead, you‘re flying into its wake turbulence, what would you do to avoid the wake turbulence?

17. Explain windshear – how to recognize and deal with windshear during different phases of flight (i.e. during T/O roll, what would you do if you encounter windshear while taking off, at V1, but you cannot reach Vr?
18. Explain the 3 parameters and the exact condition you will see before entering in windshear (GPWS does not work).
19. RNP and what it means. What are the limits and why does it exist? What is the RNP standard for a GPS approach?
20. How do you know the end of the runway is arriving (i.e: runway lighting/markings)?
21. Runway & Taxiway markings/lighting (how do you know you are on a taxiway and not a runway; how would you know you are clear of the runway after landing CAT III and/or reduced visibility?)
22. How do you know that you are on the correct runway for takeoff if you cannot see outside the cockpit?
23. What do you do when the Captain is unstable below 500ft?
24. What do you do when you bounce a landing?
25. When do you transition from the flight directors to the runway?
26. Cat I, II, III minimums in RVR meters.
27. What are the CATIIIA limitations?
28. What is the stabilized approach criteria?
29. What do you do if you get an RA saying descend and ATC is telling you to climb?
30. Describe an engine failure on take off without a standard engine out procedure.
31. Describe the crosswind landing technique.
32. Describe what to do if, after such landing, due to slippery runway, the aircraft starts skidding.
33. Describe RNP operations.
34. Difference between QFE, QNH, QNE (eg: many airports in Asia only provide QFE, how do you obtain QNH; what would the error be if you were flying into QFE airport, with QNH set).
35. Explain RVSM (use; altimeter checks prior to departure & during flight in RVSM airspace.)
36. Describe windshear procedures.
37. If on approach on a clear CAVOK day and a predictive wind shear warning occurs, what would you do?
38. The wind on final approach changes from 10 knots headwind, to 10 knots tailwind, what does it mean, what happens, and what do you do?
39. Stable approach concepts. What do you do if your Captain/FO deviates from the approach under 500ft?
40. ETOPS.
41. Windshear questions, specifically encounters on takeoff roll.
42. Windshear precautions for takeoff (max thrust, increased rotation)
43. Atlantic MNPSA definition and meaning
44. On an ILS approach and below 500 ft a GPWS warning occurred and you notice you are only slightly below the GP, what would you do?
45. How can you manage a 3 degree glide path
46. Describe AH (alert height).
47. What is the difference between fail operational and fail passive?
48. How do you anticipate dealing with the increased work density on the roster?

49. Anti-Ice/de-ice, how long and after when do you start counting time for the protection for fluid Types 1-2?
50. Contaminated runway operations
51. NPA in cold weather, (i.e. temperature corrections)
52. NDB approach and more than 5 degrees off over the beacon, (i.e. go around)
53. Describe TEM (threat error management) – how do you manage it?
54. Describe PRM approaches and break out procedures.
55. Describe the various GPWS modes.
56. What is your airlines policy on the use of reverse thrust upon landing, when do you cancel it?
57. What flap setting is standard for landing in your airline, and what is the main difference between flap 25 and flap 30 landings?
58. Runway & Taxiway lighting/markings. Are you very familiar with the use of the FMC? Explain the FMC annunciations during takeoff.
59. Cabin pressurization control
60. Procedures for door upper deck flight lock
61. Describe the engine out procedures of your airline if there isnt a published one in the FOM
62. What corrections do you do when in very cold weather (ie altitude corrections).
63. Can LNAV be used with QFE?
64. Problems associated with the use of QFE
65. How would you operate the aircraft in turbulence?
66. How would you get on with an ex military FO?
67. What is the difference between THR and THR/REF, as displayed on the FMA?
68. Imagine that you have a fire in the aft cargo compartment; can you tell us the action you would take?
69. Explain the circle to land procedure, what are the differences with a visual approach in circuit? (from downwind).
70. VDP Definition, Computation with DME and Time. How do you compute your own VDP?
71. You are behind a 747. What type of wind would you prefer?
72. B747 touches down at 1200ft in the TDZ where do you want to touch down?
73. Descent planning and computation of Ground Speed. (Look for STARS, SIDS @ IAH).
74. Approach plates questions, especially on non-precision.
75. Definition of Accelerate stop distance
76. Definition of Adequate visual reference
77. Definition of ADIZ
78. Definition of Transition Altitude and Level
79. Definition of Area Navigation
80. Definition of DH/MDA
81. Definition of Feeder route
82. Definition of Feeder Fix
83. Definition of FAF
84. Definition of FAP
85. Definition of Grid MORA
86. Definition of MORA
87. Definition of Minimum IFR altitudes
88. Definition of MOCA
89. Definition of MORA
90. Definition of MCA
91. Definition of MEA
92. Definition of MRA
93. Definition of MVA
94. Definition of MSA
95. Definition of Route MORA
96. Definition of Runway Edge
97. Definition of TCH
98. Definition of TDZE
99. Definition of Ground, Prevailing, RVV, RVR

These are half of the questions I’ve gathered. I will check out some more and post them as part II of this post. Have fun and enjoy your learning. Fly smart and safe, a good airman always does .

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Electronic Flight Bag

Electronic Flight Bag – EFB

What is an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB)?

An Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) is a portable electronic device designed to provide the pilot with on demand access to electronic aircraft publications from his/her seated position in the cockpit.

The legal requirements for implementing an EFB program are issued by the aviation Authority and the most important documents are listed below :

  • Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular (FAA AC) 120-76B dated October 1st, 2008 – Guidelines for the Certification, Airworthiness and Operational Approval of Electronic Flight Bags. Rev B is still in DRAFT status.
  • FAA AC No: 91.21-1B – Use of Portable Electronic Devises onboard aircraft.
  • FAA AC No: 91-78 – Use of Class 1 or 2 EFB.
  • Joint Aviation Authorities Temporary Guidance Leaflets (TGL) 29 – Guidance concerning the use of PED units on board aircraft, and TGL 36 – Approval of EFB units.
  • EASA AMC 20-25, still in DRAFT STATUS.
  • Transport Canada Policy Letter No. 500-017.
  • TC Advisory Circular No. 0231.

For the purpose of certification the EFB devices (hardware) are legally divided in three classes

Class 1

From an operational use perspective, Class 1 EFB systems are:

  • Generally Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS)-based computer systems used for aircraft operations.
  • Portable.
  • Not attached to a permanent aircraft mounting device.
  • Not required to go through an administrative control process for use in the aircraft (if using only Type A applications);

Class 2

From an operational use perspective, Class 2 EFB systems are:

  • Generally COTS-based computer systems used for aircraft operations.
  • Portable, or may have strap-down server component.
  • Connected to an aircraft mounting device during normal operations.
  • Required to go through an administrative control process to add, remove, or use in the aircraft.

Class 2 EFB system power, data connectivity, installed antennas, and mounting devices require AIR design approval via type certificate (TC), supplemental type certificate (STC), amended type certificate (TC) or technical standard order authorization (TSOA).

Class 3

From an operational use perspective, EFB systems are installed equipment that requires AIR design approval, except for user modifiable software that may be used to host Type A and B applications.

A basic Tablet PC or iPad is considered Class I EFB.

The software for the devices is divided in two types

Type “A” Software Applications

  • May be hosted on any of the hardware classes
  • Require regulatory authorization for use
  • Do not require an AIR design approval
  • Used only during non-critical phases of flight

 Type “B” Software Applications

  • May be hosted on any of the hardware classes
  • Require regulatory authorization for use
  • May require aircraft evaluation
  • Do not require an AIR design approval
  • May be used during all phases of flight, including terminal operations

The last item in the Type B definition classifies Jepp TC and Jepp FD as type B applications also if you choose to have Electronic Checklists which to use in all phases of flight then they shall be classified as type B applications. The reason which this is important is because if you have class I devices with type A software you do not have to go through an administrative control process in order to implement the EFB. (Although that EFB which doesn‘t replace the 20 kilos of jepp manuals is rather useles, not to mention the revisions for these manuals which can be big pain)

Airline Interview Questions

Pilot Interview Questions

Thumbs Up PilotHere are some questions I found, I don’t remember where, the PDF file was on my computer. The questions are taken from an actual interview for airline pilots and answering them can improve our airmanship skills. Hope you find them useful and feel free to post answers as comments. I will try to get some more interview questions ASAP. Preparing for an interview is very important when applying for new job and is not considered cheating at all 🙂 Have fun and enjoy 🙂

Standard HR Questions:

  1. Tell me something about yourself that we cannot decipher from your resume or application?
  2. What is one accomplishment that you are very proud of?
  3. Why should we hire you here at XYZ airlines?
  4. Why shouldn’t we hire you?
  5. Why did you choose XYZ?
  6. Have you applied to any other companies?
  7. What, in your opinion, makes a professional pilot?
  8. What is one quality/personality trait, given the chance, you would change about yourself?
  9. How would you describe yourself in one word?
  10. Tell me about the toughest crew you had to deal with?
  11. Tell me about a time you went outside company policy?
  12. When was the last time you had an FAA/JAA/CAA inspector on board and how did it go?
  13. Tell me about a time you had to deal with a stressful flight?
  14. Tell me a time when you witnessed a crewmember do something unsafe?
  15. Tell us about a time you had to use your leadership skills to resolve a problem?
  16. Have you ever failed a check ride, and if so tell me about it?

Technical Questions:

Jepp Charts are used industry wide and it is strongly encouraged to study the charts in grave detail prior to an interview.

  • Know how to Brief an Approach or finger fly an approach
  • Be able to answer what any symbol is on a low altitude chart, approach plate, SID/STAR

What airplane are you most familiar with?

  • What is the max Takeoff weight, Landing weight, and Ramp weight?
  • What is the fuel capacity?
  • Can you explain to me how the landing gear system works? (if applicable)
  • Can you describe the pressurization system? (if applicable)

What is blue line?

What is V1? What is V2?

What is the difference between stating minimum fuel and declaring and emergency?

What is a balanced field?

What are the alcohol consumption regulations?

What is the IFR fuel requirement?

At what FL does RSVM begin and what are the requirements to operate within?

Be able to talk through a departure or Arrival procedure, what to do in case of lost communications, final altitude, and flight path.

Conflict Resolution Questions:

The proverbial drunken captain question, may be asked in various forms and also be ready to roll play the scenario.

  • What would you do if during the van ride to the airport your captain smelled like alcohol?
  • What would you do if you ran into your captain drinking within less than the regulatory 8 hours bottle to throttle?

What would you do/say if your captain (flying pilot) was 5 knots slow on Final Approach? Again this may be role played.

COST INDEX basic explanation

COST INDEX

Cost index (CI) is a number presenting the  ratio of the time-related cost of an airplane operation and the cost of fuel. The value of the CI reflects the relative effects of fuel cost on overall trip cost as compared to time-related direct operating costs.

The formula may look simple enough but getting the numbers in it isn‘t quite simple.

Each company must determine its fleet CI in order to fly as efficiently as possible. It is work that should be done when forming the basic strategies of the company. It is a lot of work and is not as simple as it looks. Most of the manufacturers provide a default CI based on the average prices of fuel and time related cots but CI for a specific operator may be very different for another. Sometimes the CI of two airplanes of the same type model or variation may have different values.

Time related costs (TRC)

The TRC are basically the costs you can save by saving one hour of flight time.

When determining the type related costs for a trip, you must take into account every cost you pay by time. Such costs are leasing, maintenance, engines, auxiliary power units and all other items you replace by the hours. Also some companies pay their crew by the hour, or provide a bonus by the hours, If this is the case those expenses should be included in the CI.

The leasing of the airplane can be paid by the actual flight time or by fixed period of years. If the first is the case then leasing is directly included in TRC if the case of your company is the second then a more complex calculation based on lease period is required to determine the how it affects the TRC during the lease period. When the lease is paid then this cost can be removed by the formula.

The hourly price of leasing can be determined by dividing the lease price by the hours, you want to fly in order to pay the airplane.

Maintenance price is the price you pay for every scheduled maintenance of the aircrafts and its items. This price can be easily evaluated as most maintenance is hourly scheduled. When there is cycles based maintenance it doesn‘t add value to the TRC as it doesn’t change with changing the flight time between two cycles.

Fuel costs

Fuel costs is the price of fuel your aircraft consumes by the hour during flight. It looks straight forward but in fact this costs are subject for complex calculation. The varying fuel price, fuel tankering and fuel hedging can make a lot of difference when calculating the fuel costs.

Avery simple example is given below

Airplane lease 10 000 000$ planned to be paid in 10 000 hours equals 1000 $/h

Calculated maintenance 50$/h

Resource limited Items (such as Engines APU etc.) = 100 $/h

 TRC= 1150 $/h

Average consumption = 2000 lb/h

Fuel price500 $ per 1000 lb

Fuel Cost Per Hour = 1000$

This means that if you can save one hour by flying faster and burning 2000lb more you will save 150$

The number of the cost index varies with each manufacturer  and a way to determine it is provided in the manuals. Once calculated it can be inserted into the FMC and the computer will do the complex calculation and give you the optimum speeds and performance in order to get most of the airplane resources. CI changes all the time and modifications should be made with each change in costs.

Flying efficiently is very important in commercial aviation and is sign of good airmanship.